Also known as oral thrush, oral candidiasis occurs mostly in elderly or senior persons due to compromise in their immunity. This oral issue is caused by a fungus called candida. Persons with oral candidiasis would have a white layer on their tongue.
Various reasons why elderly or senior persons are more likely to get oral candidiasis issue are
It is noteworthy that as people age or grow older their immune response weakens. As a result of this, the elders would not be able to control the growth of Candida in their oral cavities. The yeast would proliferate due to the immune system`s decreased ability to recognise and respond to pathogens.
One co-morbid condition that is present in the elders is diabetes. Persons with diabetes could get oral candidiasis problems in them. This could be because of the fact that high blood sugar levels in the elderly diabetic patients would create an ideal environment for the growth of yeast. In addition, the diabetic persons have compromised immune systems and they are more prone to get infections. Those with cancer and those who are undergoing chemotherapy for cancer could get oral candidiasis on their tongues.
Many elderly persons use multiple medications or polypharmacy for their health issues. These persons are more likely to get oral candidiasis. The oral environment in these persons could get altered due to many medicines. This would help the candidiasis to grow well. Intake of certain antibiotics could alter the oral flora or environment and would allow candidiasis to thrive.
Poor oral hygiene:
There are more chances of oral candidiasis in the elders due to their physical and cognitive impairments. The elderly due to their reduced dexterity and coordination would not be able to maintain proper oral hygiene. As a result of this, they could get affected by oral thrush on their tongues. Oral care would be ignored by those who have cognitive decline. These persons would also get oral candidiasis.
Nutritional deficiencies:
Reduced appetite, issues in swallowing, changes in food habits etc in the elderly persons would lead to nutritional deficiencies. The immune system could get weakened due to lack of vitamins like A, C, K etc plus due to the lack of minerals like zinc and iron etc. This would lead to the oral candidiasis in them.  Atrophy of oral mucosa would occur due to malnutrition and this would make the elders more susceptible to colonisation by candida.

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